Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence.Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. The influences on the winter climate are often described as a seesaw pattern as the northern US tends to be warmer and drier than normal while the southern US tends to be colder and wetter than normal.In this study, we use statistical analyses, numerical model experiments and case studies to show that the Central-Pacific El Niño enhances the drying effect, but weakens the wetting effect, typically produced by traditional Eastern-Pacific El Niño events on the US winter precipitation.As a result, the emerging Central-Pacific El Niño produces an overall drying effect on the US winter, particularly over the Ohio–Mississippi Valley, Pacific Northwest and Southeast.Infiltrating ductal cancer is the most common tumour type.Inflammatory carcinoma and Paget's disease of the breast have also been seen in men.The investigation and management of male breast cancer are based on studies on female patients.At present there is a need for further research into male breast cancer.
The results of this study imply that the emergence of the Central-Pacific El Niño in recent decades may be one factor contributing to the recent prevalence of extended droughts in the US.
As for the CP El Niño (figure 1(b)), the warm anomalies are confined in the tropical central Pacific near the international dateline.
The associated principal components from these two leading EOF modes represent the strengths of these two types of El Niño and are defined as the CP El Niño index and the EP El Niño index, respectively.
The different wave train responses should also affect the locations and strengths of tropospheric jet streams that control the winter storm paths over the US.
In this study, we conduct statistical analyses of reanalysis data, numerical experiments with a forced atmospheric general circulation model and case studies of the major El Niño events since 1948 to examine the impacts of the two types of El Niño on US winter precipitation.